Adult smokers with a history of problem drinking who continue smoking are at a greater risk of relapsing three years later compared with adults who do not smoke. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/09/150930140351.htm
Taking omega-3 supplements reduces craving for nicotine and even reduces the number of cigarettes that people smoke a day, according to a new study conducted at the University of Haifa. “The substances and medications used currently to help people reduce and quit smoking are not very effective and cause adverse effects that are not easy to cope with. The findings of this study indicated that omega-3, an inexpensive and easily available dietary supplement with almost no side effects, reduces smoking significantly,”
E-cigarettes, e-Hookahs, and vaporizers are completely unregulated by any agency, so their safety and effectiveness has not been tested. No one can say that they are safer than other tobacco products (such as non-combusted tobacco products). This is one major reason why public health officials are reluctant to tell people to use them.
Since the quality of each device may vary, and the nicotine dose that an individual user may receive varies with the brand, battery charge level, “e-juice,” and experience of the user, it is hard to know how well any particular device works or what the user is inhaling. We have little information about the safety of vapors like propylene glycol when they are heated and directly inhaled, rather than eaten or used on the skin. The safety of many of the inhaled flavorings in the e-cigarette liquid is also not known; heating these flavorings could create new chemicals and byproducts. We don’t know how safe it is to breathe “second hand vapor.”
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“There is no clear evidence that e-cigarettes help with smoking cessation and the lack of FDA regulation has led to the use of at least 19 harmful chemicals in the devices, some that are cancer-causing carcinogens.”